Monday, August 24, 2020
Correspondence In All Its Forms Correspondence is representative of making, keeping up, or reinforcing social connections just as fulfilling the material needs and needs of somebody out of luck. It alludes to the trading of items without the utilization of cash or other media of trade. It can appear as sharing, friendliness, endowments, or dealing. Anthropologists recognize three types of correspondence. One structure is summed up correspondence, which is the giving of merchandise without desire for an arrival of equivalent incentive at any positive future time. Summed up correspondence happens essentially between people who are genuinely appended to each other and have an obligation to help each other based on need. In the United States, guardians who furnish their kids with cover, food, vehicles, school instructions, and intrigue free advances are rehearsing summed up correspondence. Giving without the desire for a snappy and proportionate return ought to likewise happen between certain different sorts of social relations, for example, spouses and husbands, kin, and some of the time dear companions. Among specific gatherings of individuals a larger number of merchandise are traded utilizing this structure than some other. For instance, most individuals from little chasing and assembling bunches are required to share food and be liberal with their assets. Summed up correspondence oc curs in every single human populace and is the prevailing method of trade in little gatherings where all or most individuals are family members. Another structure is adjusted correspondence, in which the items traded are relied upon to have generally equivalent worth. Besides, another trademark is that there is no bartering between the gatherings. The arrival might be normal quickly, or at whatever point the supplier requests it, or by some predetermined... ... correspondence into another can be utilized as a method of changing the idea of a social relationship. Since the type of correspondence rehearsed between two people is identified with the level of social separation between them, the social separation can be diminished or expanded by one gathering starting another type of trade. For instance, somebody can move someone else nearer by probably starting a relationship of adjusted correspondence. Taking everything into account, types of correspondence will in general be related with sorts of social relations, so the correspondence rehearsed between individuals changes as their relationship changes. Individuals can utilize correspondence to accomplish social objectives. For instance, individuals can send positive or negative messages by either responding or declining to respond endowments or solicitations. In conclusion, correspondence can be utilized as a method of shortening or extending social separation.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
In the pre-Columbian time when the Europeans had not yet found the Ã¢â¬Å"New WorldÃ¢â¬ there lived numerous particular yet additionally comparative clans that controlled the whole way across. Numerous clans existed during this time of success for the Native Americans. A couple of its fundamental clans are the Cherokee, Iroquois, Navajo, and Sioux who were all extraordinary in their own particular manner. Right off the bat, the Cherokee were comprised of seven families with which each had an alternate reason and occupation. The names and employments of the considerable number of clans in English are Long Hair which sends the Peace Chief, Blue who is the most established; Wolf to ensure groups, Wild Potato is the attendant of the land (gatherers), Deer is the quickest sprinters and trackers, Bird sends errand people, and finally Paint are the medication individuals. The conviction framework for the Cherokee was that acceptable is compensated and fiendish is rebuffed. One fundamental item they utilized was waterway stick making and utilizing it for numerous reasons. The Trail of Tears was a significant piece of the Cherokee past since they utilized it to move to an alternate region. (Data for the Cherokee Paragraph: Secondly, the Iroquois were comprised up of a limited quantity of clans, for example, Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, and Tuscarora. The primary Iroquois believed themselves to be a prevalent people which brought down their numbers as time passed by. One more explanation the numbers went down was on the grounds that they joined the British during the Revolutionary War. The conviction of the Iroquois was that they ought not slaughter one another and a feeling of inner solidarity. The manner in which the Iroquois endure was through a political framework. (Data for the Iroquois Paragraph:? http://www. tolatsga. organization/iro. html).
Monday, July 20, 2020
Fluoxetine Side Effects and Controversies Phobias Types Print Fluoxetine Side Effects and Controversies By Lisa Fritscher Lisa Fritscher is a freelance writer and editor with a deep interest in phobias and other mental health topics. Learn about our editorial policy Lisa Fritscher Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Claudia Chaves, MD on July 29, 2016 Claudia Chaves, MD, is board-certified in cerebrovascular disease and neurology with a subspecialty certification in vascular neurology. Learn about our Medical Review Board Claudia Chaves, MD Updated on August 13, 2019 Jonathan Nourok / The Image Bank / Getty Images More in Phobias Types Causes Symptoms and Diagnosis Treatment Prozac is the brand name of the drug fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). SSRIs are second-generation antidepressants, which means they are newer than first-generation medications such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). As serotonin is involved in the regulation of anxiety as well as mood, clinicians sometimes prescribe SSRIs for phobia treatment, particularly social phobia. Serotonin Basics Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, a chemical that carries signals between neurons in the brain. SSRIs, including fluoxetine, slow the rate at which the brain reabsorbs serotonin, allowing it to spend more time in the space between neurons, known as the synaptic gap. This, in turn, allows the serotonin to transmit additional signals to the neurons. Taking Fluoxetine Fluoxetine is available by prescription only and in a variety of strengths. Clinicians prescribe it for daily or weekly use. Although you may begin to feel better right away, fluoxetine often takes a while to work and need to be in your system over time. If you have questions or concerns, call your physician for instructions. Never attempt to adjust your dosage or medication schedule without professional guidance. The Danger of Suicidality in Children and Young Adults Fluoxetine is one of the only antidepressants approved for clinically depressed youths. However, there is some controversy surrounding its use. Speak to your doctor, or your childs doctor, about the risks and benefits of fluoxetine in order to make an informed decision. In 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began requiring all SSRIs, including fluoxetine, to carry a black box warning that stresses the increased risk for suicidality in children and adolescents. A black-box warning is the most stringent warning a drug can carry before the FDA pulls it from the shelves. In 2007, the FDA ordered a review, expanded the directive to include anyone 24 years old or younger and added warnings to the black box about the higher risk of suicidality during the first 1 to 2 months of treatment. The review examined data from a group of more than 2,1000 children taking SSRI medications, about 4 percent experienced suicidal thoughts, including suicide attempts, but none of the children were successful at taking their own life. More recent reviews suggest that the benefits of antidepressant medications likely outweigh their potential risks to children and adolescents with major depression and anxiety disorders. Drug Interactions According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine, fluoxetine can interact with a long list of other medications. As a special precaution for fluoxetine, do not take it if you have taken any monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) within the past two weeks, and do not begin an MAOI within five weeks after discontinuing fluoxetine or any other SSRI. Other medications that could interact with fluoxetine include: A variety of mood disorder treatmentsSeizure medicationsNSAID pain relieversMigraine treatments Natural remedies such as St. Johns wort also interact with fluoxetine and other SSRIs. Make sure your doctor is aware of all prescription, over-the-counter, and natural remedies you use. Always seek professional advice before taking anything new while taking fluoxetine. Avoid alcohol and sedatives. Side Effects of Fluoxetine Drowsiness or nervousness may occur, particularly when you first start taking it fluoxetine. If youre having side effects from your medication, contact your doctor immediately. Avoid driving and operating heavy machinery until you know how you react to the medication Fluoxetine can cause a variety of side effects, including, but not limited to: NauseaTremorSexual side effectsExcessive sweating
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Hegemonic masculinity can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the cultural idealized form of masculine character, which emphasizes the connecting of masculinity to toughness and competitiveness as well as the subordination of women and the marginalization of gay menÃ¢â¬ (Trujillo, 1991, p. 290). We live society were male dominance is the order of the day, from the family arena to the workplace, and in sports in which individuals with certain characteristics and attributes as seen as normal and the rest are termed as the Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ . This paper will focus on how hegemonic masculinity has been mediated through the media, by creating gender gaps. Furthermore, it is important to note that the media is important sources that orchestrate the perception of individuals inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Cooky, Messner, Hextrum indicated that the coverage of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s sports is the lowest ever irrespective of the increased participation of girls and women in sports at high school collegiate a nd professional level (240). For instance KABC a Los Angeles televise new sports, spent less than 30secs of their sports segment covering the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s U.S golf Opening on the LGPGA tour (240). Also the rare moments when womenÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ sports receives coverage from mainstream news media, the media trivializes women athleticism or reproduces a narrow stereotypical representation of female athleticism that draws sexist and/or racist ideologies (206). In their examination of print media they found that men were overrepresented in the sports newsroom (Cooky, Messner, Hextrum, 207). For instance, 94% of sports editors, 89% of copy editors, 89% of assistant sports editors, 87% of sports reporters and 88% of columnist are all male, the majority are white (207). However, this conveys the message that sports is for, by and about men. Trujillo, on the other hand, gave five features that depict hegemonic masculinity: physical force and control, occupational achievement, family hi erarchy, frontiermanship and heterosexuality (291). He proposed that history and dominant groups have successfully persuaded many Americans to believe that sports builds manly character and develop physical fitness, realizes justice and prepare young men for war (Trujillo,Show MoreRelatedHegemonic Masculinity Essay1114 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthan not people get their ideas of masculinity from the shows and movies they watch throughout their lives. In the article Hegemonic masculinity in media contents, by Peter J. Kareithi, he focuses much more specifically on how the media has presented it to the public, and less of the why, and how it started. The paper by Connell and Messerschmidt, Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept, does a much better job at explaining the history of hegemonic masculinity and how it came to be. Though togetherRead MoreThe Theory Of The Glass Ceiling Metaphor Essay1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof research was hegemonic masculinity theory. Hegemonic masculinity began as a field study that sought to discuss masculinity and the experience of menÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies (Connell Messerschmidt, 2005). The theory developed from the premise of cultural hegemony that analyzes power relations among the social classes in a society (Connell Messerschmidt, 2005). The term hegemonic defines cultural dynamics of a social group that dominant position in a social hierarchy. Hegemonic masculinity theory is used acrossRead MoreMasculinity and Gender Roles1232 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdeveloped by and represented through popular cultural media such as advertisements, music, sports, and entertainment television (Soulliere 2006). The article Ã¢â¬Å"Wrestling with Masculinity: Messages about Manhood in the WWEÃ¢â¬ by Danielle M. Soulliere (2006), examines messages about manhood revealed by televised professional wrestling (Soulliere 1). Messages concerning masculinity and manhood were investigated and compared to the cultural version of masculin ity (Soulliere 2006). SoulliereÃ¢â¬â¢s research proves thatRead MoreHegemonic Masculinity : Characters And Plot Of The Popular Sitcom Two And A Half Men1720 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshow the production of hegemonic masculinity and subordinate masculinity in the show reinforce the idea of hegemonic masculinity as the only real form of manliness accepted by societyÃ¢â¬â¢s standards of an Ã¢â¬Å"ideal man.Ã¢â¬ Effeminate masculinity, a subordinate form of masculinity, is not represented in the show in a positive light rather, it is mocked. The characters that play these roles are Charlie, who plays the hyper masculine role, and Alan, who plays the effeminate masculinity role. AlanÃ¢â¬â¢s role is inferiorRead MoreSexuality, Identity And Media Audiences Essay1567 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMDIA 208 Media Audiences Faith Holloway 300314105 Sexuality, Identity and Media Audiences Drawing upon qualitative audience studies, this essay aims to discuss the extent to which sexuality plays a role in media audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s identity construction. Furthermore, this essay argues that sexuality is significantly influenced by hegemonic discourse surrounding masculinity and heteronormativity. Foucault eludes to this idea nothing that both Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ the formation of identities and practices are related to, orRead MoreCriminalization Vs Criminalization982 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespeople outside of the dominant social norms is labeled as a criminal, and is influenced by racism, sexism, and nationalism ideologies. In criminalization, laws are made to make certain bodies and acts criminal, and is a multi-step practice in which media representation helps shape popular views of criminal behavior and criminals. Examples are laws forbidding homosexuality and minimum sentencing for possession of drugs. A person can be criminalized for same-sex loving because it falls out of domi nantRead MoreMasculinity, Masculinity And Violence1728 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmany gender systems, masculinity is an expression of male gender that can vary based upon culture and society. Many cultures uphold a set of standards and expectations that an individual must maintain in order to be considered masculine. Several of these expectations can often be dangerous, violent, or even abusive. In particular with a focus on the two-sex, two-gender system of Western, patriarchal society, this paper will investigate the correlation between enforced masculinity and violence. AccordingRead MoreMasculinity Essay1321 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesConstruction of Masculinity According to Connell, there are four masculinities present in our society: hegemonic, complicit, marginalized, and subordinate. Hegemonic masculinity is the dominant form of masculinity in society. It is culturally valued as the most type of masculinity. Connell states that the qualities of hegemonic masculinity include heterosexuality, whiteness, physical strength, and suppression of emotions. When men do not fit the characteristics of hegemonic masculinity but they do notRead MoreThe Representation Of Gender Masculinity1729 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthrough hegemonic constructions formed through colonisation. Due to being constructed by this dominant ideology, which in terms of a New Zealand context is Pakeha and male (Hegemony), the construction of masculinity appears natural. This hegemonic masculinity is so naturalised it becomes invisible and we donÃ¢â¬â¢t see or think about it. Law, R (1997) states that Ã¢â¬Å"The concept of hegemonic masculinity allows for us to theorise the s imultaneous existence of different constructions of masculinity, the socialRead MoreGender As A Primary Cultural Frame1517 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbetween women and men and placement in sex category is both relevant and enforced, doing gender is unavoidableÃ¢â¬ (West and Zimmerman 1987:137). By analyzing social media, we can see how pervasive gender identities are outside of physical social interactions. For my analysis, I decided to gather my data from one of the popular forms of social media, Facebook. One of the patterns found in the collected data was of the Ã¢â¬Å"fag discourseÃ¢â¬ in which homophobia is central to constructing masculine identity (Pascoe
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Corruption in society often stems from unbalanced power. Greek dramatist, Euripides uses his plays as ways to suggest that power is a large component in the corruption of man. In Euripidean tragedies, those who have the most to lose are often the ones that suffer the most. Such is the case in his plays, Trojan Women, Medea, and the Bacchae. Trojan Women begins with Athena and Poseidon discussing the Trojan War and Troy in its post-war state. Troy has been destroyed, the women and children enslaved, and the gods are not happy, despite AthenaÃ¢â¬â¢s original support for the Greeks throughout the war. In their victory, the Greeks have managed to disgrace temples and corrupt sacred people. Athena, who was a major factor in the GreeksÃ¢â¬â¢ victory, is so outrage by the corruption and disrespect shown by the Greeks that she has now decided to ask Poseidon (who aided the Trojans) to help her Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦do some evil to themÃ¢â¬ (73). This reconciliation between Athena and Poseidon shows the extent of the victorsÃ¢â¬â¢ havoc. The Greeks are so proud of the power that they have acquired that they no longer feel the need to respect and fear the gods who helped them. Through this victory and discussion between the gods, Euripides can be understood as commenting on the Athenian victory at Melos, and the slaughter of its people that happened before the production of this play. The fate that Poseidon agrees to inflict upon the Greeks, Ã¢â¬Å"That mortal who sacks fallen cities is a fool if he gives the temples and theShow MoreRelatedIs Corruption A World Issue?1397 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesresearch a global issue which, from our opinion was affecting the world and divulge as much of that information as possible to be able to share with the class as well as make an informed monologue about said topic. My topic of choice is corruption. Ã¢â¬Å"A world Issue can be defined as a situation or problem that occurs on a global scale that has long lasting impacts and requires a complex solutionÃ¢â¬ (World Issues class 2015-2016). Corruption definitely occurs on a global scale. Not all of these instancesRead MoreTheme Of Corruption In Brave New World794 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn Brave New World, Aldous Huxley uses diction and specific details in order to convey a theme of a corrupt, brainwashed society that reflects the community during the era of the 1930s. During the 1930s, people were beginning to be taught to do what is Ã¢â¬Å"neededÃ¢â¬ in order to have a happy life. The individuals in HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Brave New World are Ã¢â¬Å"conditionedÃ¢â¬ to do the same thing. Whether these actions include using drugs, being sexually active, or providing a predestined life for each individual. The societyRead MoreThe World Bank s Anti Corruption Policy Essay1330 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesquestion of whether the World BankÃ¢â¬â¢s Anti-Corruption policy can be improved through the adaption of a Political Economy Analysis (PEA) framework. Since John Wolfensohn, then President of the World Bank, addressed the Ã¢â¬Ëcancer of corruptionÃ¢â¬â¢ as a major impediment to growth in 1996 the World Bank has adopted a mounting concern over corruption. Today, the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s fixation on corruption incorporates concerns over Ã¢â¬Ëgood governanceÃ¢â¬â¢, particularly in underdeveloped countries. Corruption and governance are politicalRead MoreCorruption Of Somalia After World War II1817 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages CORRUPTION IN SOMALIA FINAL GRADUATE PAPER Mohammad mohammad Brief geography and history In the late 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, European colonialism came to Somalia. Especially in areas away from the coast, they fought in a fierce way. In the end, most of Somalia came to be under the control of Britain, France or Italy. World War II brought about further fighting in the region, as SomaliaÃ¢â¬â¢s ocean access is strategic. After World War IIRead MorePolice Corruption Is Very Common All Over The World934 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Police corruption is very common all over the world. Although corruption exists in other professions it hardly is ever brought up in the spotlight. Police corruption is defined as the social contract being broken by police officers for personal and professional gains. Along with corruption come disloyalty, low morale, lies and toxic employees. There are numerous reports circulating as to why police corruption occurs. Corruption can also include brutality from police officers. There are two typesRead MoreEssay on Ethics and Corruption in Governments Around the World1384 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswhich one can decide what actions are permissible and what actions are not. Government ethics constitutes the application of ethical rules and norms to the government. It covers issues of honesty and transparency in government, political corruption, police corruption, bribery, legislative ethics, regulatory ethics, conflict of interest, avoiding the appearance of impropriety, open government, and legal ethics. In India, bureaucracy is arranged in a way that people can move up the ladder only on theRead MoreCorruption Perception Index World Wide Ranking Map1561 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Corruption Perception Index world wide ranking map Figure 1 : CPI, Corruption Perception Index Figure 2 : Countries 1 to 95 Rank Figure 3 : Countries 95 to 182 Rank As shown in the Corruption perception Index ranking China ranks at 75 vs Mexico 100 Mexico Employment Mexican work law perceives and ensures the fundamental unalienable privileges of Employees, controls manager worker relations, and sets up the working conditions for workers. The Federal Labor Law (FLL) characterizes aRead MoreHow Corruption Affects The Public And Private Sectors Of Our World1306 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction Corruption is a multidimensional phenomenon with numerous causes and effects in the public and private sectors of our world. This dark trend has no boundaries, it is found in every country ranging from the economic leaders down to the least developed nations. The official definition given for corruption by Transparency International is Ã¢â¬Å"the abuse of entrusted power for private gainÃ¢â¬ (TI). The problem of corruption has been seen either as a structural problem of politics and economicsRead MoreSocial Media Is Bad For The Teenager Aspect Of Life By Causing World Corruption1549 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSocial media is bad for the teenager aspect of life by causing world corruption in many ways. Social media can change and become cyberbullying, social outcasting, lack of communication skills, and most of all, not being able to find whom you can become. This is not only through social media, but also video games, television, and self-reflection caused through these. Social media have progressed so far that communicating through face to face talks donÃ¢â¬â¢t seem as appealing anymore. There is Skype whereRead MoreThe Absolute Biggest Threat That Our World Faces Today Is Global Mass Corruption Essay1512 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe absolute biggest threat that our world faces today is global mass corruption. A comprehensive report suggests that Afghanistan, Somalia, and North Korea are among worst regions in terms of corruption. Transparency International is the firm in which has established the Corruption Perceptions Index. The index is based on the collaborated global professional opinion of many intellects in order to define the measured perceived levels of public sector corruption. The score a nation receives in the
Reliability and validity in assessment are of crucial importance.Ã Issues in administration can have a significant impact on the reliability and validity of assessment results and the inferences that are made about studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance based on these results. It is essential therefore that proper techniques of administration be adopted in ensuring that the integrity of assessments is preserved and that the inference made about studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance are indeed reliable and valid. We will write a custom essay sample on Administration considerations for reliable and valid assessments or any similar topic only for you Order Now Administration considerations will differ based on the nature of the assessment, whether it is formal or informal. For formal assessments there are usually pre-established guidelines for the examiner to oversee the administration of the assessment instrument. It is important that the examiner familiarize him/herself with the proper techniques of administering the specific test so that the reliability and validity of the test can be ensured and preserved. While the assessment may not require formal training to develop competence the test administrator must understand the protocols of the test, understand what is expected of the students, and follow correct and exact procedures during test administration to ensure that equal and fair conditions are provided for all students. McLoughlin and Lewis (2005) caution that Ã¢â¬Å"measures administered by untrained testers produce highly questionable results that must be considered invalidÃ¢â¬ ( p. 90). It is therefore essential that examiners are comfortable with all exam procedures and follow these explicitly to avoid invalidating the results produced from such tests. Additionally the tester must also be sensitive to the needs of the students during assessment. The examiner cannot Ã¢â¬Å"praise, prompt or give informationÃ¢â¬ (McLoughlin Lewis, 2005, p. 94). Examiners must understand correct protocol during test administration. Certain practices should be avoided. The examiner should refrain from confirming or correcting (McLoughlin Lewis, 2005, p. 95) studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ responses during the test as well as they should avoid coaching students in order to elicit correct responses. Depending on the purpose and nature of the test the examiner may be permitted to repeat oral items for students. The examiner should also encourage students to complete or respond to all items on the test and may use questioning during tests to encourage students to respond to items. Evidently the ability of the tester to adequately preside over the test is a very critical issue in ensuring that test results are valid and reliable. The test administrator sets the pace and the outcome of the test pivots around his/her ability to ensure transparency. By ensuring that the tester is adequately prepared for the test the possibility of incorrect administration procedures will be avoided. The test environment should also be such as provides an atmosphere in which the students can work successfully. As McLoughlin and Lewis (2005) indicate, Ã¢â¬Å"this environment can influence test performanceÃ¢â¬ (p. 90). The test environment should be as comfortable as possible for all students, with good ventilation, adequate and comfortable seating for each student where necessary, adequate space for writing, appropriate lighting, comfortable temperature, minimal external disruptions, minimal distractions such as a view through a window, passersby, other individuals passing freely in and out of the examination room or other visual distractions such as posters. Additionally the examiner has to ensure that all material required for the test are present including material students will need to complete test items. While it is ideal that the test environment is free of all these encumbrances, all these conditions do not have to be satisfied to ensure the validity and reliability of the test. In some instances some aspects of the environment, though they are not at their optimal levels, may not affect studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance. However, it is difficult to determine how studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance will be affected by the environment and thus the examiner should attempt to ensure that the setting is as close to ideal as possible. The examiner could also exercise discretion during test administration to determine if the location of the exam needs to be changed or the exam discontinued completely because of environment. It is not far fetched that a well-prepared environment becomes inappropriate at some point during the exam. Based on the reaction of the students the examiner could determine if the distractions or disruptions are sufficient enough to affect student performance. These provisions ensure that, as far as possible, no external factors negatively impact student performance and that students are adequately provided with the right tools with which to reap success. Another consideration is the preparation of the students for the test. Students should be adequately informed of the time, date, location and purpose of the test as well as be aware of what exactly is required of them. The time of day is of extreme importance. Researches have been conducted to determine the time of day that will produce the optimal results for students. Recently Hansen, Janssen, Schiff, Zee and Dubocovich (2005) found that students were more vigorous during the evening than in the morning and thus were in a better frame of mind to complete tests. It is difficult, however, for examiners of standardized test to have any impact on the time of administration since often the examining body has a preset time for completion. Another administration consideration is the rapport between the students and the examiner. McLoughlin and Lewis (2005) recommend that the examiner familiarizes him/herself with the students and help themÃ feel at ease with the examiner. The examiner should also explain the purpose of and orient them towards the test. This includes describing test activities, length and difficulty of the test. The examiner should also inform students of proper exam protocol, informing them how to ask for assistance during the test as well as explain to them any timing signals that may be given. The examiner should encourage students to ask questions about aspects of the test administration that they are uncertain about. Adequate provisions should be made for students to have a break, if possible, during a lengthy test so as to Ã¢â¬Å"ward off fatigueÃ¢â¬ (McLoughlin Lewis, 2005, p. 99). These practices would ensure that students know what is expected of them before the test begins so that no time is wasted during the test. The procedures for administering informal classroom assessment are much the same. The classroom teacher should ensure that students are adequately prepared for the test, are aware of the test objectives, are given adequate time to complete it and that no unfair assistance is provided to any student. Also the teacher should make sure the environment is conducive to testing with convenient seating and minimal opportunity for cheating. Additionally in administrating certain types of assessment such as observations and interviews, the teacher has to ensure that the objectives to be tested are clearly laid out, with clearly outlined criteria for scoring so that bias is avoided and each student is scored fairly. The use of rating scales, rubrics and checklists help to ensure that assessment is focused and that the correct behaviors are being observed. However at times a teacher may later find that these instruments do not adequately measure all the attributes and that certain key attitudes are not catered for. This is one disadvantage with rating scales and checklists, if a student displays a positive behavior that is not outlined in the rating scale no provision is made for it and the child is disadvantaged. The purpose of assessment is to ensure that each students has an equal chance of performing at their best in the test and thereby demonstrate to the examiner whether or not they possess certain skills, knowledge or attitudes. Therefore once the examiner adopts these administration considerations the possibilities of measurement error are diminished and test administration conditions will have minimal, if any, negative effect, on student outcome. Students will therefore be able to meaningfully demonstrate their knowledge, skills and attitudes to the teacher. References Hansen, M., Janssen, I., Schiff, A., Zee, P. C. Dubocovich, M. L. (2005). The impact of school daily schedule on adolescent sleep. Pediatrics, 115, 1555Ã¢â¬â1561. McLoughlin, J. A. Lewis, R. B. (2005). Assessing students with special needs. (6th ed.). NJ: Prentice-Hall/Merrill. How to cite Administration considerations for reliable and valid assessments, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Lovely People Do Stupid Things Lovely People Do Stupid Things How is love to influence our lives? Love-struck people do crazy things to express how they care for that particular person yet it is a long and windy road to these actions. It is down this path that experience spawns and trouble and happiness are felt. Janie Crawford of Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God, shows the road through the steps of her three relationships. These relationships, though not fulfilling ones, conclude in bettering Janie's search and understanding of life. Johnny Taylor, Janie's first kiss and gatekeeper to her future, When Janie was sixteen, she embarked on a sexual awakening. Johnny Taylor was a poor young man who lived in the Florida area. Janie allowed him to kiss her over the fence. Unfortunately, Nanny saw everything. With Nanny's horrendous background of sinful deeds done to her, she wanted the best for Janie. As she saw the kiss, the doors of life opened for Janie and Nanny wasn't going to have her make the same mistakes that she had. Yet, Nanny had been impregnated under the circumstances of being a slave and this was not the case for Janie. Nanny stated that ?black women were the mules of the world?, but she didn't want Janie to be a mule. She wanted to see Janie in a secure situation before she died, and Logan Killicks could provide that. Janie did not want to marry Logan, but she did so because Nanny told her ?that she would eventually come to love him.? Ironically, Logan wanted to force Janie into the servitude that Nanny feared. Also, he was disappointed that Janie never returned his affection and attraction. If he could not possess her through love, he would possess her by demanding her submission. At heart, his actions arose from the fear that Janie would leave him. Two months after her marriage to Logan, Janie visited Nanny to ask when she would start loving him. Nanny berated Janie for not appreciating Logan's wealth. Although Logan pampered Janie for a year, he began complaining that she was spoiled. That night, Logan criticized Janie for being spoiled and lazy. Janie voiced his deepest fears when she suggested that she might leave him. Logan reminded her of her family's reputation, hoping to hurt her feelings. Turning to these drastic of measures blew Janie into a frenzy and she left with a smooth-talking gen tleman that very next day. Janie chose to leave Logan for Jody because he revived her dreams of love in marriage. Her first marriage had taught her that marriage and love do not go hand in hand. However, she still believed that love was the best motivation for marriage. Jody promised that he would never turn Janie into a common pack mule. He promised her that she would reap all the benefits of his work. His words eerily echo Nanny's dream of respectability and financial security for Janie. However, Janie didn't marry Jody because of these promises. She married him because he inspired the feelings she had experienced while sitting under the blossoming peach tree when she was sixteen and the moment her womanhood became crystal clear. Ironically, Janie's marriage to Jody was the very embodiment of Nanny's dreams for her. Unlike Logan, he did not make her a pack mule. He gave her financial security and respectability. However, the marriage was largely an unhappy union. Janie could not be herself around Jody. Moreover, Jody still used Janie as a garbage even though he gave her wealth and respectability. So it seems that Nanny's worst fears and her highest hopes were realized in Janie's second marriage. It was until one afternoon in the store that she met a lofty yet handsome young man who went, strangely enough, by the name of Tea Cake. Tea Cake's courtship was different from that of Logan and Jody. Janie's first marriage was more of a contract of sale between Nanny and Logan than anything else. Janie's second marriage was an escape from the first one. Moreover, it was based on disappointed dreams. Jody courted her by talking about himself and his dreams. Tea Cake, on the other hand, pursued Janie with a more romantic flair.